Samira Anderson

Shared Knowledge Is Power

By Lauren McGrath

Each February, thousands of hearing and balance scientists join their colleagues from around the world at the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (ARO) Mid-Winter Meeting. It is one of the premier international conferences for those in the field. I was fortunate to attend this year’s 42nd meeting, held in Baltimore, on behalf of Hearing Health Foundation (HHF), along with Emerging Research Grants (ERG) awardees past and present, Hearing Restoration Project (HRP) consortium scientists, and HHF scientific committee members—all of whom are integral to our mission to advance the prevention, treatment, and cures of hearing and balance conditions.

ARO provides auditory and vestibular researchers opportunities present their latest findings and engage in meaningful conversations with one another. If one scientist presents an idea to an audience of 100 scientists, she’s just created the possibility for 100 new ideas will form. Even one novel suggestion following a presentation at ARO can be invaluable to science.

Tenzin Ngodup, Ph.D., represents his HHF-funded tinnitus project at ARO.

Tenzin Ngodup, Ph.D., represents his HHF-funded tinnitus project at ARO.

One forum through which scientists share their knowledge at ARO is in the poster hall. ERG grantees including Tenzin Ngodup, Ph.D., and Samira Anderson, Au.D. Ph.D., stood proudly alongside large poster board displays ready to answer questions about their respective projects. Ngodup, who is currently funded by HHF and based at Oregon Health and Science University, used his poster to visually explain his progress investigating neuronal activity in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) in order to prevent and treat tinnitus. “It was previously thought that there were a few hundred inhibitory glycinergic cells called D-stellate cells in the VCN, but we found a surprisingly large population of glycinergic cells— approximately 2,700—that are physiologically and morphologically distinct from D-stellate cells,” Ngodup says. By quantifying inhibitory neurons in the VCN he aims to examine inhibition in typical vs. tinnitus models, especially after noise exposure.

University of Maryland’s Anderson, a 2014 ERG grantee, represented an impressive half dozen informational poster boards with her colleagues. The titles included: “Aging Effects on the Auditory Evoked Cortical Potentials in Cochlear Implant Users”; “Mutual Information Analysis of Neural Representations of Speech in Noise in the Aging Midbrain”; and “Age-Related Degradation Is More Evident for Speech Stimuli With Longer Than With Shorter Consonant Transitions.” A clinician who transitioned to research, Anderson graciously thanked HHF for funding her first-ever scientific grant, and was thrilled to tell me her work had just been cited by the Wall Street Journal in an article called “Better Hearing Can Lead to Better Thinking,” published February 6, 2019, about the importance of hearing loss treatment in older adults.

Outside of the poster sessions in lecture halls, ARO attendees conduct topic-specific seminars to seated audiences. Elizabeth McCullagh, Ph.D., of University of Colorado Denver, a 2016 ERG grantee, led a symposium called “Mechanisms of Auditory Hypersensitivity in Fragile X Syndrome” in which she and other speakers, including Kelly Radziwon, Ph.D. (2017 ERG), and Khaleel Razak, Ph.D. (2018 ERG), presented their novel findings related to Fragile X syndrome: a genetic model for autism, difficulties in sound localization, and overstimulation by sound in mouse models.

2018 ERG grantees Joseph Toscano, Ph.D., A. Catalina Vélez-Ortega, Ph.D., and David Jung, M.D., Ph.D.

2018 ERG grantees Joseph Toscano, Ph.D., A. Catalina Vélez-Ortega, Ph.D., and David Jung, M.D., Ph.D.

Achim Klug, Ph.D., a volunteer ERG grant reviewer, remarked during the Council of Scientific Trustees (CST) reception—a gathering to formally honor our ERG 2018 grantees—how critical McCullagh’s ERG grant has been to her work as an early-career scientist. With seed funding from HHF, McCullagh was able to investigate and publish information about a previously underfunded topic and deepen understanding within the hearing research field, he said. Allen Ryan, Ph.D., another member of the CST, added the program is “immensely valuable for helping young scientists advance to receive a Research Project Grant [R01] from the National Institutes of Health.” Every dollar invested in ERG grantees yields $91 from the NIH.

The HRP consortium also convened at ARO to deliver updates on five active projects following their most recent Seattle meeting. Bioinformatics and epigenetics were major focal points with Ronna Hertzano, M.D., Ph.D., showcasing updates to the gEAR database that she created (“Gene Expression Analysis Resource”) and Neil Segil, Ph.D., reporting on gene changes in the mouse inner ear, a project he works on with fellow HRP scientists Michael Lovett, Ph.D., David Raible, Ph.D., and Jennifer Stone, Ph.D.

Stefan Heller, Ph.D., who spoke about his Stanford lab’s work on transcriptome changes in single chick cells, noted: "The investments in the HRP are truly paying off, especially in the last one to two years. HRP investigators had major papers published and obtained National Institutes of Health support with the help of funding for the HRP consortium. Regarding my laboratory’s work, HRP support has given us the chance to focus on getting the highest possible quality of data—in my mind, the most important foundation for future work."

HHF looks forward to work to come from Ngodup, Anderson, McCullagh, and other ERG grantees, as well as the collaborative efforts of the HRP to advance a biological cure for hearing loss. We sincerely thank our generous donors and supporters who make this life-changing work possible.

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The People Behind the Science

By Yishane Lee

Eight years ago we introduced a column called “Meet the Researcher.” Placed on the last page of the magazine (prime editorial real estate!), the MTR column was designed as a way to give our Emerging Research Grants (ERG) scientists a place to talk about their ERG project in more detail—and in lay terms for our readers—including its genesis, planned execution, and future goals.

Credit: Jane G. Photography

Credit: Jane G. Photography

“Meet the Researcher” also is an opportunity for us to glimpse the person behind the science, with the researchers sharing how they became interested in their field and whether they have any personal connection to hearing conditions. Perhaps not surprisingly, many researchers do become interested in hearing and balance science as a result of their own experience with hearing loss. For instance, 2010 ERG scientist Judith Kempfle, M.D., told us she received an artificial eardrum at age 13, after many ear infections that her brother also got when they were kids growing up in Germany. With her ERG funded by the Royal Arch Masons General Grand Chapter International, Kempfle has gone on to work on many papers with Hearing Restoration Project member Albert Edge, Ph.D. (including a recent one about the effort to deliver drugs directly to the inner ear).

Ed Bartlett, Ph.D., Purdue University

Ed Bartlett, Ph.D., Purdue University

Also a Royal Arch Masons grantee, 2011 ERG scientist Ed Bartlett, Ph.D., who published research on the lasting effects of blast shock waves on auditory processing, remembers asking his teacher whether we actually hear thoughts or if it something else. “So, I guess I was destined for auditory neuroscience,” says Bartlett, who also earned ERG funding in 2003, 2004, and 2009.

2011 and 2012 ERG scientist Regie Santos-Cortez, M.D., Ph.D., who earned the Collette Ramsey Baker Award named after HHF’s founder, spoke about the challenges of getting access to genetic information for her study that eventually pinpointed a gene mutation linked to a predisposition for ear infections. 2012 ERG scientist Bradley J. Walters, Ph.D., says he started out studying evolutionary biology, switched to studying regenerating damaged brain tissue, and then switched to hearing research. “I realized a lot of the ideas I had been working on in the brain could be applied to the ear,” he says. A 2017 paper he coauthored described successfully using gene therapy to regenerate hair cells in adult mice.

Alan Kan, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison

Alan Kan, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison

An early love of logic puzzles for 2013 ERG scientist Alan Kan, Ph.D., a Royal Arch Masons grantee, turned into studying audio engineering and his 2018 paper looking at how to improve speech understanding among people who use bilateral cochlear implants. Fellow 2013 Royal Arch Masons recipient Ross Maddox, Ph.D., remembers varying how he cupped his hands over his ears to get different sounds, leading to an interest in auditory processes and, eventually, research on how auditory and visual input is synthesized to understand sound.

After 26 years as a clinical audiologist, Royal Arch Masons 2014 ERG scientist Samira Anderson, Ph.D., switched to research. “Part of my motivation came from working with patients who struggled with their hearing aids,” she says. “I was frustrated that I was unable to predict who would benefit from hearing aids based on the results of audiological evaluations.” She produced three papers on the topic, bringing us closer to improving fit for and increasing the use of hearing aids.

Likewise, fellow Royal Arch Masons grantee Srikanta Mishra, Ph.D., produced two papers, one in 2017 and one in 2018, on children’s hearing that stemmed from his 2014 ERG grant—work that also led to a prestigious National Institutes on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders grant. And we liked the backstory for 2014 ERG scientist Brad Buran, Ph.D., so much that we put him on the cover of our magazine. Buran, who wears cochlear implants, multitasks during happy hour with his colleagues. “In an environment where it’s hard to hear,” he says, “within an hour they have all the information they need to use Cued Speech,” which uses visual representations of phonemes.

Beula Magimairaj, Ph.D., University of Central Arkansas

Beula Magimairaj, Ph.D., University of Central Arkansas

In 2015, we expanded our coverage of ERG recipients, so that every grantee is profiled in a “Meet the Researcher” column, all available online. Three papers resulted from the Royal Arch Masons grant received by 2015 ERG scientist Beula Magimairaj, Ph.D., and her research into children’s speech perception in noise and auditory processing (the third paper is in press). Funded by Hyperacusis Research Ltd., 2015 ERG scientist Kelly Radziwon, Ph.D., has managed to create a reliable animal model for loudness hyperacusis (essentially, inducing loudness intolerance in a rat and making sure it reacts to gradually increasing sound intensities) as well as finding a potential link between neuroinflammation and hyperacusis. 2015 and 2016 ERG scientist Wafaa Kaf, Ph.D.—who has 18 other family members (and counting!) who work in science—has been investigating Ménière’s disease, publishing on improving its diagnosis as it can be mistaken for other conditions, and the use of electrocochleography (ECochG) for diagnosing and monitoring the hearing and balance disorder.

Elizabeth McCullagh, Ph.D., University of Colorado

Elizabeth McCullagh, Ph.D., University of Colorado

A karaoke fan who admits he “cannot resist Celine Dion,” Royal Arch Masons 2016 ERG scientist Richard Felix II, Ph.D. published on the greater-than-expected role of lower-level brain regions on speech processing. Fellow Royal Arch Masons grantee, 2016 ERG scientist Elizabeth McCullagh, Ph.D., makes her own cheese and beer in between uncovering new clues to sound localization problems in the genetic condition known as Fragile X syndrome, which can lead to autism.

Rahul Mittal, Ph.D., University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

Rahul Mittal, Ph.D., University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

2016 ERG scientist Harrison Lin, Ph.D., funded by The Barbara Epstein Foundation Inc., credits his older brother, also an otolaryngologist, for developing in him a love for science. He coauthored a January 2018 JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery paper that detailed the gap between hearing loss diagnoses and treatments. 2016 ERG scientist Rahul Mital, Ph.D., who says he’d write fiction if not doing research, published an overview of hair cell regeneration, and Julia Campbell, Au.D., Ph.D., whose 2016 grant was funded by the Les Paul Foundation, understands firsthand what is feels like to have tinnitus, a topic she recently published a paper that investigated mild tinnitus in young patients with typical hearing. Hyperacusis Research-funded 2016 ERG scientist Xiying Guan, Ph.D., whose parents grew up doing manual labor in China, published a paper evaluating a treatment for conductive hyperacusis.

Some of our 2017 ERG scientists are already publishing. Royal Arch Masons grantee Inyong Choi, Ph.D., produced research on hybrid cochlear implants, which make use of residual hearing to produce more natural hearing. Oscar Diaz-Horta, Ph.D., whose 2017 ERG grant was funded by the Children’s Hearing Institute, investigated hair cell bundle structure and orientation. Very regretfully, Diaz-Horta died unexpectedly just as this paper was published.

Ian Swinburne, Ph.D., Harvard Medical School

Ian Swinburne, Ph.D., Harvard Medical School

Ian Swinburne, Ph.D., one of our Ménière’s Disease Grants scientists during its inaugural year in 2017, published a paper detailing one possible cause of Ménière’s disease. Swinburne and team discovered a structure in the inner ear’s endolymphatic sac acts a pressure-sensitive relief valve. Its failure may account for problems with inner ear fluid pressure and volume that may lead to hearing and balance disorders, including Ménière’s. “One activity I loved as a child was waterworks: building canals and aqueducts out of sand or dirt and then pouring water through them just to watch it flow,” he says. “Now I recognize an echo of that play in my study of water pressure and flow within the ear.”

We very much look forward to published research from all of our ERG scientists, including our latest crop of 2018 ERG scientists, whose ranks include a former college mascot, a violinist, a horse rider (of a horse named Gandalf), a Tibetan neuroscientist (and cookbook writer), a cricket player, a nonprofit cook who has prepared meals for 50,000 people, a dancer (including in flash mobs), and a builder of airplane scale models. Our ERG scientists deliver surprises of all sorts, from their backgrounds and how they got to where they are to the ground-breaking science they are spearheading in the lab.

 

We need your help supporting innovative hearing and balance science through our Emerging Research Grants program. Please make a contribution today.

 
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New Research Shows Hearing Aids Improve Brain Function and Memory in Older Adults

By University of Maryland Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences

One of the most prevalent health conditions among older adults, age-related hearing loss, can lead to cognitive decline, social isolation and depression. However, new research from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences (HESP) shows that the use of hearing aids not only restores the capacity to hear, but can improve brain function and working memory.

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The UMD-led research team monitored a group of first-time hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss over a period of six months. The researchers used a variety of behavioral and cognitive tests designed to assess participants’ hearing as well as their working memory, attention and processing speed. They also measured electrical activity produced in response to speech sounds in the auditory cortex and midbrain.

At the end of the six months, participants showed improved memory, improved neural speech processing, and greater ease of listening as a result of the hearing aid use. Findings from the study were published recently in Clinical Neurophysiology and Neuropsychologia.

“Our results suggest that the benefits of auditory rehabilitation through the use of hearing aids may extend beyond better hearing and could include improved working memory and auditory brain function,” says HESP Assistant Professor Samira Anderson, Ph.D., who led the research team. “In effect, hearing aids can actually help reverse several of the major problems with communication that are common as we get older.”

According to the National Institutes of Health, as many as 28.8 million Americans could benefit from wearing hearing aids, but less than a third of that population actually uses them. Several barriers prevent more widespread use of hearing aids—namely, their high cost and the fact that many people find it difficult to adjust to wearing them. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated a link between hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults. Aging and hearing loss can also lead to changes in the brain’s ability to efficiently process speech, leading to decreased ability to understand what others are saying, especially in noisy backgrounds.

The UMD researchers say the results of their study provide hope that hearing aid use can at least partially restore deficits in cognitive function and auditory brain function in older adults.

“We hope our findings underscore the need to not only make hearing aids more accessible and affordable for older adults, but also to improve fitting procedures to ensure that people continue to wear them and benefit from them,” Anderson says.

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The research team is working on developing better procedures for fitting people with hearing aids for the first time. The study was funded by Hearing Health Foundation and the National Institutes of Health (NIDCD R21DC015843).

This is republished with permission from the University of Maryland’s press office. Samira Anderson, Au.D., Ph.D., is a 2014 Emerging Research Grants (ERG) researcher generously funded by the General Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons International. We thank the Royal Arch Masons for their ongoing support of research in the area of central auditory processing disorder. These two new published papers and an earlier paper by Anderson all stemmed from Anderson’s ERG project.

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Read more about Anderson in Meet the Researcher and “A Closer Look,” in the Winter 2014 issue of Hearing Health.

WE NEED YOUR HELP IN FUNDING THE EXCITING WORK OF HEARING AND BALANCE SCIENTISTS. DONATE TODAY TO HEARING HEALTH FOUNDATION AND SUPPORT GROUNDBREAKING RESEARCH: HHF.ORG/DONATE.

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