hearing tests

Staying Vital

By Lauren McGrath

My father is an avid concertgoer who turned 61 in February, and I’ve been trying for more than two years—since I joined the team at Hearing Health Foundation (HHF)—to convince him to get his hearing tested.

I do not know whether or not my father has an identifiable hearing loss, but I know that a person of his age should take extra precaution for his ears. The World Health Organization advises: “If you are beyond the age of 60, work in a noisy environment, or have frequent exposure to loud noises, an annual hearing check is recommended.”

Lauren and her father at a music festival in Athens, Georgia.

Lauren and her father at a music festival in Athens, Georgia.

As an adult, I have had my own hearing tested twice, first with an audiologist at the Center for Hearing and Communication in New York City, and later over the phone using an automated system. Though I have never experienced difficulty in conversations or noisy spaces, I appreciated that these non-intrusive tests provided reassurance my hearing falls within the typical range. If a loss was identified, I would have been equipped to seek treatment immediately.

“Hearing tests are quick, easy, and painless, Dad,” I persist, but he’s still adamant about not getting one of his own, despite being generally proactive in other areas of his health. As we now know, ignoring a hearing loss can result in additional serious medical issues affecting the whole body, including cognitive decline and dementia, falls, social isolation, and depression.

With my ongoing support (read: badgering), I expect my father will take my advice in the near future. But most of the U.S. adult population does not have someone in their life checking up on their hearing health unless they are already treating a known hearing condition. 

Because the importance of healthcare is still severely underappreciated, I’m immensely grateful for the “Hear Well. Stay Vital.” campaign. This awareness initiative launched by the Hearing Industries Association (HIA) in early 2019 has as its objective to encourage more people—starting with baby boomers, like my dad—to check their hearing annually and take appropriate action with the results. 

hearwell-stayvital.jpg

“Hear Well. Stay Vital.” is centered on the preservation of our passions. The campaign website states: “We all have passions that inspire us, hobbies and interests that energize and make us feel like our true selves. Singing. Tennis. Dancing. Motorcycling, Yoga. Pottery. Hiking. Gardening. Traveling. Socializing. This concept is designed to capture those passions and help people understand that to stay vital and preserve their passion, they need to manage their hearing health. So, get a hearing wellness check annually and stay true to yourself.” 

HIA was largely inspired by a 2016 report by the The National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine onHearing Health Care for Adults: Priorities for Improving Access and Affordability.” One recommendation of this report, to which HHF Board of Directors member Judy Dubno, Ph.D., contributed, calls for improving publicly available information on hearing health. 

“Hearing health and routine hearing checks do not receive the attention directed to other health issues. Many people can cite statistics relative to their unique health, such as height, weight, heart rate, cholesterol, vision and more. But not hearing,” says Kate Carr, president of HIA. 

HHF is a partner in the campaign, along with the Academy of Doctors of Audiology, the American Academy of Audiology, the American Cochlear Implant Alliance, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, the Hearing Loss Association of America, and the International Hearing Society.

HIA encouraged a major push during May’s Better Speech and Hearing Month to garner awareness. As of August, PSA videos were distributed to more than 3,000 network stations across the U.S. The PSA videos are in the top 10 percent of more than 1,000 videos tracked by Nielsen. 

“Anyone can join in this effort to improve hearing health,” Carr says. The campaign website hosts videos and a social media guide for free download and distribution. 

I’m hopeful that education will continue to increase and, one day, hearing tests will be perceived as important as dental cleaning and vision checks. 

Music is my dad’s passion. He sees an average of 40 concerts each year (with earplugs, of course), and his CD and record collection totals over 3,000. I want him, and individuals at risk of hearing loss, to preserve their ability to enjoy what they love to the fullest.

For more on the “Hear Well. Stay Vital.” awareness campaign and free shareable resources, see hearwellstayvital.org.

Print Friendly and PDF

ERG Grantees' Advancements in OAE Hearing Tests, Speech-in-Noise Listening

By Yishane Lee and Inyong Choi, Ph.D.

Support for a Theory Explaining Otoacoustic Emissions: Fangyi Chen, Ph.D.

Groves hair cells 002.jpeg

It’s a remarkable feature of the ear that it not only hears sound but also generates it. These sounds, called otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), were discovered in 1978. Thanks in part to ERG research in outer hair cell motility, measuring OAEs has become a common, noninvasive hearing test, especially among infants too young to respond to sound prompts..

There are two theories about how the ear produces its own sound emanating from the interior of the cochlea out toward its base. The traditional one is the backward traveling wave theory, in which sound emissions travel slowly as a transverse wave along the basilar membrane, which divides the cochlea into two fluid-filled cavities. In a transverse wave, the wave particles move perpendicular to the wave direction. But this theory does not explain some anomalies, leading to a second hypothesis: The fast compression wave theory holds that the emissions travel as a longitudinal wave via lymph fluids around the basilar membrane. In a longitudinal wave, the wave particles travel in the same direction as the wave motion.

Figuring out how the emissions are created will promote greater accuracy of the OAE hearing test and a better understanding of cochlear mechanics. Fangyi Chen, Ph.D., a 2010 Emerging Research Grants (ERG) recipient, started investigating the issue at Oregon Health & Science University and is now at China’s Southern University of Science and Technology. His team’s paper, published in the journal Neural Plasticity in July 2018, for the first time experimentally validates the backward traveling wave theory.

Chen and his coauthors—including Allyn Hubbard, Ph.D., and Alfred Nuttall, Ph.D., who are each 1989–90 ERG recipients—directly measured the basilar membrane vibration in order to determine the wave propagation mechanism of the emissions. The team stimulated the membrane at a specific location, allowing for the vibration source that initiates the backward wave to be pinpointed. Then the resulting vibrations along the membrane were measured at multiple locations in vivo (in guinea pigs), showing a consistent lag as distance increased from the vibration source. The researchers also measured the waves at speeds in the order of tens of meters per second, much slower than would be the speed of a compression wave in water. The results were confirmed using a computer simulation. In addition to the wave propagation study, a mathematical model of the cochlea based on an acoustic electrical analogy was created and simulated. This was used to interpret why no peak frequency-to-place map was observed in the backward traveling wave, explaining some of the previous anomalies associated with this OAE theory.

Speech-in-Noise Understanding Relies on How Well You Combine Information Across Multiple Frequencies: Inyong Choi, Ph.D.

Understanding speech in noisy environments is a crucial ability for communications, although many individuals with or without hearing loss suffer from dysfunctions in that ability. Our study in Hearing Research, published in September 2018, finds that how well you combine information across multiple frequencies, tested by a pitch-fusion task in "hybrid" cochlear implant users who receive both low-frequency acoustic and high-frequency electric stimulation within the same ear, is a critical factor for good speech-in-noise understanding.

In the pitch-fusion task, subjects heard either a tone consisting of many frequencies in a simple mathematical relationship or a tone with more irregular spacing between frequencies. Subjects had to say whether the tone sounded "natural" or "unnatural" to them, given the fact that a tone consisting of frequencies in a simple mathematical relationship sounds much more natural to us. My team and I are now studying how we can improve the sensitivity to this "naturalness" in listeners with hearing loss, expecting to provide individualized therapeutic options to address the difficulties in speech-in-noise understanding.

2017 ERG recipient Inyong Choi, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the department of communication sciences and disorders at the University of Iowa in Iowa City.

We need your help supporting innovative hearing and balance science through our Emerging Research Grants program. Please make a contribution today.

 
 
Print Friendly and PDF

ReSound HearSay: Be The Voice of Hearing

By Tom Woods

"A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.” For many individuals who know—or suspect—they have a hearing loss, the first step in their journey to better hearing can prove difficult.

It took more than two years for Francine Murphy of Peoria, Arizona to take action. She says, “I was in denial and I was concerned that it would not help, especially if the sound quality was poor. Start with acknowledging that there may be an issue and start with your family doctor. The best resource I found was my audiologist.”

ReSound hearing aid user Francine Murphy.

ReSound hearing aid user Francine Murphy.

Francine is clearly not alone. For many, the delay is due to uncertainty, apprehension, and lots of questions. In the U.S. alone, more than 25 million people who could benefit from hearing aids have yet to take that first step. 

We believe that hearing is fundamental to life. When it starts to decline, it’s imperative that everyone understands, and has access to, the best hearing technology.

That’s why we created ReSound HearSay, an online resource that gives people who are successfully managing their hearing loss an opportunity to lend their voice to educate and inspire others to seek care.

We think that peer-to-peer information sharing is critical in this learning process.

“Get your hearing tested now,” urges John Chynoweth from Orlando, Florida. “Determine exactly what your hearing is like now (get a baseline). Work with a hearing specialist to determine the environments where you struggle to hear. Try different types of hearing aids to find the right ones for you.”

I’m reaching out to readers of this blog to share their hearing journey. Just like Francine and John, you can help those who are just starting to realize hearing loss or considering a hearing aid, and may be hesitant or unsure where to start.

Tom Woods ReSound.jpg

Through posts, you’ll encourage others into action by addressing common concerns and questions, giving them practical advice to help navigate the process, from diagnosis to hearing aids. And you’ll help them understand the important role of the hearing care professional.

Be the “Voice of Hearing” and help others on the path to better hearing. Please take time today to visit ReSoundHearSay.com to share your insights and experience.

Tom Woods is President, ReSound North America.

Print Friendly and PDF

New Data-Driven Analysis Procedure for Diagnostic Hearing Test

By Carol Stoll

Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) are sounds generated by the inner ear in response to a pure-tone stimulus. Hearing tests that measure SFOAEs are noninvasive and effective for those who are unable to participate, such as infants and young children. They also give valuable insight into cochlear function and can be used to diagnose specific types and causes of hearing loss. Though interpreting SFOAEs is simpler than other types of emissions, it is difficult to extract the SFOAEs from the same-frequency stimulus and from background noise caused by patient movement and microphone slippage in the ear canal.

2014 Emerging Research Grants (ERG) recipient Srikanta Mishra, Ph.D., and colleagues have addressed SFOAE analysis issues by developing an efficient data-driven analysis procedure. Their new method considers and rejects irrelevant background noise such as breathing, yawning, and subtle movements of the subject and/or microphone cable. The researchers used their new analysis procedure to characterize the standard features of SFOAEs in typical-hearing young adults and published their results in Hearing Research.

Mishra and team chose 50 typical-hearing young adults to participate in their study. Instead of using a discrete-tone procedure that measures SFOAEs one frequency at a time, they used a more efficient method: a single sweep-tone stimulus that seamlessly changes frequencies from 500 to 4,000 Hz, and vice versa, over 16 and 24 seconds. The sweep tones were interspersed with suppressor tones that reduce the response to the previous tone. The tester manually paused and restarted the sweep recording when they detected background noises from the subject’s movements.

mishra.jpeg

The SFOAEs generated were analyzed using a mathematical model called a least square fit (LSF) and a series of algorithms based on statistical analysis of the data. This model objectively minimized the potential error from extraneous noises. Conventional SFOAE features such as level, noise floor, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were described for the typical-hearing subjects.

Overall, the results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated noise rejection procedure of sweep-tone–evoked SFOAEs in adults. The features of SFOAEs characterized in this study from a large group of typical-hearing young adults should be useful for developing tests for cochlear function that can be useful in the clinic and laboratory.

Srikanta Mishra, Ph.D, was a 2014 Emerging Research Grants scientist and a General Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons International award recipient. For more, see Sweep-tone evoked stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions in humans: Development of a noise-rejection algorithm and normative features” in Hearing Research.

We need your help supporting innovative hearing and balance science through our Emerging Research Grants program. Please make a contribution today.

 
 


Print Friendly and PDF