MDG

Accomplishments by ERG Alumni

By Elizabeth Crofts

Progress Investigating Potential Causes and Treatments of Ménière’s Disease

brain-research.jpg

Gail Ishiyama, M.D., a clinician-scientist who is a neurology associate professor at UCLA’s David Geffen School of Medicine, has been investigating balance disorders for nearly two decades and recently coauthored two studies on the topic. While not directly funded by HHF, Ishiyama is a 2016 Emerging Research Grants recipient and also received a Ménière’s Disease Grant in 2017.

Ishiyama and colleague’s December 2018 paper in the journal Brain Research investigated oxidative stress, which plays a large role in several inner ear diseases as well as in aging. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defenses. The gene responsible for reducing oxidative stress throughout the body is called nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, or NRF2. Ishiyama’s study looked at the localization of NRF2 in the proteins in the cells of the human cochlea and vestibule. It was found that NRF2-immunoreactivity (IR) was localized in the organ of Corti of the cochlea. Additionally, it was observed that NRF2-IR decreases significantly in the cochlea of older individuals. The team postulates for future studies that modulation of NRF2 expression may protect from hearing loss that results from exposure to noise and ototoxic drugs.

In a January 2018 report in the journal Otology & Neurotology, Ishiyama and team researched endolymphatic hydrops (EH), a ballooning of the endolymphatic fluid system in the inner ear that is associated with Ménière’s disease. Symptoms include fluctuating hearing loss, as well as vertigo, tinnitus, and pressure in the ear.

For the study, patients with EH and vestibular schwannoma were tested to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients when EH is treated medically. Vestibular schwannoma, also known as acoustic neuroma, are benign tumors that grow in the vestibular system of the inner ear, which controls balance. Often when patients develop episodic vertigo spells and have a known diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma, surgeons recommend surgical intervention, as they attribute the symptoms to the vestibular schwannoma. However, a noninvasive treatment may hold promise. Through the use of high-resolution MRI scans, the researchers found that when EH coexists with vestibular schwannoma in a patient, and the patient also experiences vertigo spells, a medical treatment for EH—that is, the use of diuretics to relieve inner ear fluid buildup—may alleviate the vestibular symptoms.

Copy of Ishiyama.jpg


A 2016 ERG scientist funded by The Estate of Howard F. Schum, Gail Ishiyama, M.D., is an associate professor of neurology at UCLA’s David Geffen School of Medicine. She also received a 2017 Ménière’s Disease Grant.


New Insights Into Aging Effects on Speech Recognition

Age-related changes in perceptual organization have received less attention than other potential sources of decline in hearing ability. Perceptual organization is the process by which the auditory system interprets acoustic input from multiple sources, and creates an auditory scene. In daily life this is essential, because speech communication occurs in environments in which background sounds fluctuate and can mask the intended message.

Perceptual organization includes three interrelated auditory processes: glimpsing, speech segregation, and phonemic restoration. Glimpsing is the process of identifying recognizable fragments of speech and connecting them across gaps to create a coherent stream. Speech segregation refers to the process where the glimpses (speech fragments) are separated from background speech, to focus on a single target when the background includes multiple talkers. Phonemic restoration refers to the process of filling in missing information using prior knowledge of language, conversational context, and acoustic cues.

A July 2018 study in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America by William J. Bologna, Au.D., Ph.D., Kenneth I. Vaden, Jr., Ph.D., Jayne B. Ahlstrom, M.S., and Judy R. Dubno, Ph.D., investigated these three components of perceptual organization to determine the extent to which their declines may be the source of increased difficulty in speech recognition with age. Younger and older adults with typical hearing listened to sentences interrupted with either silence or envelope-modulated noise, presented in quiet or with a competing talker.

As expected, older adults performed more poorly than younger adults across all speech conditions. The interaction between age and the duration of glimpses indicated that, compared with younger adults, older adults were less able to make efficient use of limited speech information to recognize keywords. There was an apparent decline in glimpsing, where interruptions in speech had a larger effect on the older adult group.

Older adults saw a greater improvement in speech recognition when envelope modulations were partially restored, leading to better continuity. This demonstrated that with age comes a poorer ability to resolve temporal distortions in the envelope. In speech segregation, the decline in performance with a competing talker was expected to be greater for older adults than younger adults, but this was not supported by the data.

Copy of Kenny Vaden ERG 2015.JPG
Dubno_crop.jpg

A 2015 Emerging Research Grants scientist, Kenneth I. Vaden, Jr., Ph.D., is a research assistant professor in the department of otolaryngology–head and neck surgery at the Medical University of South Carolina.

A 1986–88 ERG scientist, Judy R. Dubno, Ph.D., is a member of HHF’s Board of Directors. The study’s lead author, William Bologna, Au.D., Ph.D., is a postdoctoral research fellow at the National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research in Portland, Oregon.

A 2018 HHF intern, Author Elizabeth Crofts is a junior at Boston University studying biomedical engineering. For our continually updated list of published papers by ERG alumni, see hhf.org/erg-alumni.

 

We need your help supporting innovative hearing and balance science through our Emerging Research Grants program. Please make a contribution today.

 
 
Print Friendly and PDF

Visit Our New Website Focused on Ménière's Disease

By Lauren McGrath

Hearing Health Foundation (HHF) unveiled today a new microsite dedicated to Ménière's disease, a chronic vestibular (inner ear) condition with no known cure. The content is accessible at www.menieresdisease.org as an extension of the foundation’s primary website, www.hhf.org.

HHF’s www.menieresdisease.org seeks to build awareness of and bring clarity to the “mysterious” condition with simple, informative pages. The goals are to inspire hope among people who live with Ménière's disease and their loved ones, share updates about Ménière's disease from scientists funded by the foundation, and provide a channel through which individuals can donate to life-changing Ménière's disease research. HHF is fortunate to have all administrative expenses covered by its board of trustees and endowment, so 100% of gifts will directly support life-changing research programming.

Nicolle MD Website.png

Ménière's disease affects approximately 600,000 people in the U.S. The most prominent symptoms include a sensation of ear fullness, dizziness, vertigo, nausea, fluctuating hearing loss, and tinnitus. Some patients benefit from treatments, but far too many remain completely debilitated, bedridden, and unable to work. Episodes of vertigo can strike at anytime without warning and this uncertainty offer triggers anxiety and depression.

Ménière's disease has long been an area of interest for the HHF’s long standing research programs. Inspired by supporters with personal interests in Ménière's disease and gravely concerned by the general lack of research on the subject, HHF declared a greater focus on the condition in 2017 through the establishment of the Ménière's Disease Grants (MDG) program. MDG is exclusively focused on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Ménière's disease. MDG awards scientists up to $125,000 for a two-year grant period is governed by the Ménière's Disease Advisory Board, comprised of senior researchers and physicians throughout the country who review each application for scientific merit and program relevance.

Header MD Website.png

The face of the new website is Nicolle Cure, a celebrated visual artist diagnosed this year with Ménière's disease and whose life has been devastated by sudden hearing loss and crippling vertigo. Nicolle describes her reactions to the onset of her symptoms: “These ‘invisible conditions’ affect patients an emotional level. I was completely isolated from the world and was frustrated because I couldn’t do anything or go anywhere.” Nicolle is grateful to have art as a most powerful coping mechanism when she feels well. “I wish to use my art to help people be open about their conditions and find treatments and relief and know that they are not alone in this journey.”

HHF encourages our supporters to visit www.menieresdisease.org to learn more about Ménière's disease and to share with friends, family, colleagues, neighbors, or others who may benefit from the reminder that they are not alone and find inspiration in the groundbreaking research that will one day transform lives.




Print Friendly and PDF

HHF 2019 Grant Applications Open

By Lauren McGrath

We are excited to inform you that the applications for Hearing Health Foundation (HHF)'s 2019 Emerging Research Grants (ERG) and Ménière's Disease Grants (MRG) programs are officially open as of September 1.

Call for 2019 Grants.png

HHF's ERG grants provide seed money to stimulate data collection that leads to a continuing, independently fundable line of research. According to a 2017 analysis, every $1 of funding that HHF awards to ERG grantees is matched by the NIH with $91.

ERG grant funding shall not exceed $30,000 for the one-year project period, and only research proposals in the following topic will be considered for the 2019 ERG cycle: General Hearing Health (GHH)*,  [Central] Auditory Processing Disorders, Hearing Loss in Children, Hyperacusis, Ménière’s Disease, Ototoxic Medications, Tinnitus, and Usher Syndrome.

More Information About ERG
Begin Your ERG Application

The highly competitive Ménière’s Disease Grants (MDG) program funds scientists to better our understanding of this complicated condition with an eye for better treatments and cures for those who suffer from Ménière’s disease.

MDG grant funding shall not exceed $125,000 for the two-year project period. Areas of interest for the 2019 MDG Cycle include: the mechanisms of endolymphatic hydrops; genetics of Ménière’s disease; development and validation of biomarkers, including imaging and/or electrophysiologic and behavioral measures for its diagnosis and measurement of therapeutic effectiveness; animal models of Ménière’s disease; and the development of novel therapeutics.

More Information About MDG
Begin Your MDG Application

Applications for both ERG and MDG will close Tuesday, January 15.

If you have any questions about the grant program and processes, contact us at grants@hhf.org.  
Please forward and share this information with your colleagues who may be interested.

Print Friendly and PDF